Failing to get the license means he could face penalties including up to six years in prison.
Whether the paper falls under export-control laws is unclear. The Netherlands implements European Union (EU) legislation on export controls, which require an export permit for ‘dual-use’ materials and information — those that could have both legitimate and malicious uses — including those relating to dangerous pathogens. But the EU law allows an exception for “basic scientific research” that is “not primarily directed towards a specific practical aim or objective”, which Fouchier says should cover his work."
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