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Otherlab Working on a 'Fundamental Jump' in Technology for Exoskeletons (Video) 36

Posted by Roblimo
from the was-it-a-man-or-was-it-a-robot? dept.
"Otherlab," says their projects page, "is a private Research and Development company with a number of core competencies. We welcome industrial partnerships and commercialization partners. We have worked with dozens of companies globally from small start-ups to multi-nationals and Fortune 500 businesses. We develop enabling new technologies through an emphasis on prototyping coupled to rigorous physics simulation and mathematical models. We develop our own design tools because it's lonely at the frontier and to create new things and ideas, you often have to create the tools to design them." | One of their projects is building low-cost, inflatable exoskeletons that can be used as prosthetics or -- one presumes -- as strength multipliers for people who have working limbs. This is the project today's interviewee, Tim Swift, is working on. (Alternate Video Link)

Tim: Tim, we’re here at your booth here at the O'Reilly Solid Conference with the Otherlab Orthotics, so what is Otherlab Orthotics?

Tim Swift: So Otherlab Orthotics is we’re developing a fundamental technology for exoskeletons, essentially orthotics are powered orthotic devices. What we’re making is, we’re making all fabric insulated orthotics. This is an elbow brace, it’s kind of an initial prototype, but the value of these is they are an order of magnitude reduction in cost and weight for comparable power capabilities in conventional exoskeletons.

Tim: Now the fact that you’re using soft materials is a little bit counterintuitive because I think of an exoskeleton as being a hard, rigid assembly.

Tim Swift: Yeah, just trust me, you’re not the first one, there are a lot of people actually who that’s exactly the case, is that is the, that’s the concept of what exoskeletons are and it’s actually one of the reasons why I use the term orthotics instead of exoskeleton is because while these are known as exoskeletons, we are not hard on the outside, so we kind of break that norm. But if you think of all of the advances that have come in the exoskeleton world, every advancement has come by making a smaller device than what they made previously and at this point the only device that’s ever been shown to positively impact dynamic capabilities in human is a 600 gram little tiny electro-mechanical ankle thing and so all of these push towards smaller, smaller lighter but key power, that’s fundamentally limited with conventional technologies.

Tim: Can you talk about what makes yours lighter in particular?

Tim Swift: Yeah. So, a lot of the benefits of these come in a fact of using high shrink fabric materials and so you can see, this is actually made out of a ballistic nylon. It should be known that the ballistics is marketing and marketing only. This is the material you’d make like a backpack out of, it’s as simple as it comes, but the strength to weight ratio of this material is comparable to steel and so you can get something extremely cheap and still have the strength that you get out of kind of more conventional and traditional construction materials.

Tim: What about the actual bladder inside, what is that made of?

Tim Swift: So the bladder is, the construction of this is – so it’s two layer, right, there’s the outer layer which is a high strength and an inner layer, and a polyurethane bladder at this point, but it’s this kind of structured material are set up, but it’s really conventional, it’s similar to like a bike tire, the way you’d construct that, right, you have a high strength material in the outside, you have an airtight material in the inside and we use that to build up what the structures are.

Tim: Well, let’s walk over to your little booth here and talk about the way you get the air inside.

Tim Swift: All right.

Tim: In fact, it looks like something out of a like a crazy scuba gear shop here.

Tim Swift: Yes, sadly enough.

Tim: What sort of pressures are we talking about here?

Tim Swift: So, these actually run at totally reasonable pressure, so the device here at 20 psi you’re getting about 25% of the power of a normal human elbow. That’s a very easy to generate amount of pressure. We are actively looking at this is an initial prototype of a custom compressor that we’re building, it’s a roll diaphragm compressor, and essentially this is set up to do exactly kind of create this new space of lightweight efficient mobile pneumatic tool or components. The area of hydraulic components and electromechanical components for the last 40 years has been heavily developed before the advent of robots and mobile technologies like that, and pneumatics has been honestly kind of left to the wayside because people have assumed that they weren’t a viable medium. We believe that that’s not the case; in fact, we actually believe that a lot of the reason that pneumatics doesn’t stack up very well in conventionally uses is because it’s traditionally used like hydraulic system, but it’s not actually well suited to be used that way and so what we’re basically doing is, looking at building the infrastructure pieces to get the efficiencies of a pneumatic system to where we think that that we can get them.

Tim: Let me ask you one more question?

Tim Swift: All right.

Tim: The uses include rehabilitation linked to physical therapy, maybe you have a bad joint?

Tim Swift: Yeah, of course.

Tim: What else?

Tim Swift: So, I think the easy way to capture where these can be used is we are early, we know that, everybody who’s looking at this can tell that. But we’re not trying to create a niche solution to a single problem. This is a fork in the road for an exoskeleton design. And so essentially what that means is every place that conventional exoskeletons can be used, medical applications, limited in kind of strength in applications for military, lift assist, things like that, this technology is applicable. It is fundamentally an order of magnitude lighter and cheaper than the technologies that are currently at play in those spaces. More importantly though, in areas that are outside of what conventional exoskeleton technologies can reach, consumer applications, light industrial applications, construction applications, conventional exoskeleton technologies cannot or have not proven that they can create a device cheap enough and functional enough to meet the needs in those spaces. And this order of magnitude drop in cost and weight really enables us to start reaching markets broader, as well as going after some old staples of exoskeleton.

Tim: ?

Tim Swift: Your goal is that you can – ultimately if you look at it you can think of this is just the actuator piece itself, right? And so if I look at this again, 20 psi and it is now a stiff structure right there. And so this is just fabric sewn together in a simple way, but then when it’s deflated you can see that once it deflates down it is just fabric, that’s all that’s in here, it feels like two pieces of fabric. So you can think of this easily being integrated into almost actuated clothing, you have almost like a compression pant or a compression shirt that you have or your actuation is directly built in and kind of creates a new paradigm for exoskeletons because it’s not one that we traditionally imagine when we think of Iron Man, things like that. So definitely not Iron Man.

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Otherlab Working on a 'Fundamental Jump' in Technology for Exoskeletons (Video)

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  • Oh Boy! (Score:4, Informative)

    by TWX (665546) on Monday June 23, 2014 @04:31PM (#47300297)
    Another marketing press release!

    I guess that we don't get enough of this at trade shows anymore!
  • Lower tech and more fun here [google.com]...

  • by Anonymous Coward

    Flash video? Seriously? Slashdot continues its slide into irrelevance.

  • by gurps_npc (621217) on Monday June 23, 2014 @04:43PM (#47300379) Homepage
    Look, the main issue everyone has with exoskeletons is the same issue we have with jetpacks - power limitations.

    Batteries are heavy. It takes an awful lot of energy to even give someone human strength, not counting the additional costs to carry the battery and the exoskeleton itself.

    As such, all exoskeletons suits currently in development either are tethered to a wall plug or have a ridiculously low battery capacity.

    A couple of people tried to make it work using fuel powered engines (gasoline, etc.) to power the , but those are also heavy once again resulting in shortened times between re-fueling.

    Even if you eliminate the dead weight of human limbs, (ie. small pack bots) the operating time is too short for things

    Anyone that makes a significant improvement in this area would not portray it as "working exoskeleton", but instead as "INCREDIBLY LONG LIFE BATTERY/GENERATOR".

    • It is possible to synthesize excited bromide in an argon matrix. Yes, it's an excimer frozen in its excited state.
      • I bet you could shoot a really powerful crossbow with a power source like that.

        It should be called the Crossbow Project.

    • by khchung (462899)

      As such, all exoskeletons suits currently in development either are tethered to a wall plug or have a ridiculously low battery capacity.

      You made the wrong assumption that an exoskeleton suit is only useful if it is fully mobile like a car, HOWEVER, there are already LOTS of practical application for a suit that only works well when plugged-in, or with very short battery duration (e.g. 15 mins)

      E.g. Old people or disabled people, with a plugged-in suit, can live a mostly normal life within their homes, rather than needing a 24-hour nurse just to take them to the bathroom.

      I would guess that people with paralysis or legs disabled would celebrat

    • They addressed this in the video. Their approach is to greatly decrease the weight of the exoskeleton. That reduces power requirements. They show an elbow pad that's so light that the presenter can easily hold it in one hand (although I'm assuming the battery isn't attached).
  • Stopped reading after this bit of generic corporate phrasing:

    ...with a number of core competencies

    Oh, so you are competent in a number of core things... like every company in existence? Sheesh.....

  • But really another compressor powered exoskeleton ? How is ignorance of prior art construed as innovation ?

  • So near, and yet so far...

  • by Spy Handler (822350) on Monday June 23, 2014 @05:43PM (#47300749) Homepage Journal

    a power source that isn't crappy. That would enable exoskeletons and robots that are useful.

    If you watch the demo videos, they all either have a power cord dangling off the exoskeleton/robot (presumably plugged into A/C mains) or an annoyingly loud and smoky 2-stroke generator running onboard. That's because current batteries provide nowhere near enough juice to power these suits/robots to any degree of usefulness.

    We aren't lacking in servo/microcontroller/robotics tech, we're lacking a decent battery tech.

  • I have always dreaded the day when robots achieved fundamental jump.
  • I guess if you're a moron you might actually believe that a company who's primary product is metal elephants is capable of building a transformative system.

    Like the thorium laser car.

  • by Plazmid (1132467) on Monday June 23, 2014 @08:00PM (#47301917)

    The big reason why pneumatics aren't used as much in robotics is that air is very compressible, which leads to all sorts of nastiness when you make pneumatic actuators.

    Because air is compressible, compressing air is not very efficient compared to say hydraulics. This is bad for exoskeletons.

    The other problem is that the compressibility of air limits the 'bandwidth,' or how fast these actuators can actuate and un-actuate controllably, achievable with these actuators. In addition, the bandwidth of pneumatic actuators is often below the frequency of human walking, making them impractical most exoskeleton applications.

    And of course, there's more to it than compressibility at play here that could make these actuators impractical. Since these actuators use a rubber membrane, these actuators are subject to hysteresis, significant temperature effects, and creep.

    Rubber, when stretched and unstretched quickly, heats up causing the rubber to change it's stiffness. In addition, the temperature of the rubber can also change due the air being pumped into them. Rubber, and other elastomers, also experiences a phenomenon known as creep, where it slowly stretches out with time. In fact, current industrial pneumatic muscles NEVER actuate exactly the same because of all this, and one has to use interesting control approaches.

    I am also skeptical that this will be cheaper in practice than mass produced electric actuators. While the actuators themselves are cheap, the valves and other hardware necessary to control them are not. The actuators themselves will certainly wear out sooner than electric actuators(>10 years continuous operation for robot arm actuators) due to the creep mentioned above. With lower efficiency and increased maintenance costs the overall cost of using these could very well be higher.

    In fact, the brushless motor in the compressor they show in the video probably can provide" 25% of the power of a normal human elbow," and the only reason it can't be used on a human elbow is that much of that power is at high-speed with low torque. If someone were to develop a compact and efficient gearbox for turning high speed- low torque into low speed-high torque, then one could mass produce it and skip all the pneumatic silliness.(Or just do what that company that robotics google just bought did and use watercooling/overclocking)

    • Re: (Score:2, Interesting)

      by Anonymous Coward

      Pneumatics is way better exactly because air is compressible, that allows you to make something more akin to a controlled force actuator - making it easy to modulate force to pick up an egg or crush a brick. The actuators are also compliant, (inherently springy), meaning less precise positional control is required to do real world dynamic activities, and less energy will be required for things like walking/running. The control problem is mostly about modulating pressure quickly.

      Rubber creep is obviously n

  • The same company is also working on inflatable robotics. I wrote an article about 'em a while back; it's definitely worth taking a look: http://www.hizook.com/blog/201... [hizook.com]

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